AVANTI POLAR LIPIDS , CYGNUS , LARODAN , ADIPOGEN , MYBIOSOURCE , SERVA NORDMARK, BIOWORLD, EDGEBIO , PANREAC APPLICHEM
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Product description: Monoclonal Antibody. Recognizes the Human protein. Liquid. HEPES with 0.15M NaCl, 0.01% BSA, 0.03% sodium azide, and 50% glycerol. The Smad family of proteins are functioning in the transmission of extracellular signals in the TGF-beta signaling pathway. Binding of a TGF-beta superfamily ligands to extracellular receptors triggers phosphorylation of Smad2 at a Serine-Serine-Methionine-Serine (SSMS) motif at its C-terminus. Phosphorylated Smad2 is then able to form a complex with Smad4. These complexes accumulate in the cell nucleus, where they are directly participating in the regulation of gene expression. In mammals, eight Smad proteins have been identified to date. The Smad family of proteins can be divided into three functional groups: the receptor-activated Smads (R-Smads), common mediator Smads (Co-Smads), and the inhibitory Smads (I-Smads). The R-Smads are directly phosphorylated by the activated type I receptors on their C-terminal Ser-Ser-X-Ser (SSXS) motif and include Smad1, Smad2, Smad3, Smad5, and Smad8. Smad2 and Smad3 are phosphorylated in response to TGF-beta and activin, whereas Smad1, Smad5, and Smad8 are phosphorylated in response to BMP (Bone Morphogenetic Protein). This C-terminal phosphorylation allows R-Smad binding to Co-Smad, Smad4, and translocation to the nucleus where they regulate TGF-beta target genes. Smad6 and Smad7 belong to the I-Smad which bind to the type I receptor or Smad4 and block their interaction with R-Smads. The Smads share sequence similarities, most notably in the N-terminal and carboxy-terminal regions, referred to as the MH1 (Mad Homology 1) and MH2 domains respectively. Smad2 and Smad3 have 66% amino acid sequence identity between their MH1 domains and 96% amino acid sequence identity between their MH2 domains. Common mediator of signal transduction by TGF-beta (transforming growth factor) superfamily; SMAD4 is the common SMAD (co-SMAD). Promotes binding of the SMAD2/SMAD4/FAST-1 complex to DNA and provides an activation function required for SMAD1 or SMAD2 to stimulate transcription. May act as a tumor suppressor.
Alternate Names/Synonyms: DPC4; Smad4; SMAD4; hSMAD4; SMAD 4; MAD Homolog 4; SMAD Family Member 4; Mothers Against DPP Homolog 4; Mothers Against Decapentaplegic Homolog 4; Deletion Target in Pancreatic Carcinoma 4
Product Type: Monoclonal Antibody
Isotype: Mouse IgG2a kappa
Immunogen: Recombinant human His-Smad4 protein purified from E. coli.
Species Crossreactivity: Human
Formulation: Liquid. HEPES with 0.15M NaCl, 0.01% BSA, 0.03% sodium azide, and 50% glycerol.
Short Term Storage: +4°C
Long Term Storage: -20°C
Shipping: BLUE ICE
Use & Stability: Stable for at least 1 year after receipt when stored at -20°C.
Literature References: 1) Ross S and Hill CS. (2008) Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 40(3):383-408. (General)2) Brown KA et al. (2007) J Cell Biochem. 101(1):9-33. (General)3) Xu L. (2006) Biochim Biophys Acta. 1759(11-12):503-513. (General)
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